The United States is in the mist of extreme prescription drug shortage. In 2010 there were 178 drug shortages in the United States and in 2011 the number rose to 251. The numbers are estimated to continue to raise causing panic among the sick and needy people across the nation. There are shortages in cancer drugs, anesthetics, emergency medicine, and electrolytes for IV feeds. The Food and Drug Administration, or FDA, is doing everything they can to prevent these shortages. These shortages affect the pharmacies and hospitals then the consumers.
The drug shortage has been a major problem since 2008. The primary reason for the drug shortage in the United States was manufacturing issues. Also, suppliers are failing to supply the raw materials required to produce the necessary prescription drugs. In order to regulate these shortages, President Obama has issues an executive order that requires suppliers and producers to notify The Food and Drug Administration when they predict shortages of their product. Problems can occur at any point of the process. The FDA cannot control how each company is run, but they must know when a shortage is predicted, so that something can be done to avoid it.
Many hospitals and individual patients are concerned that they cannot acquire the drugs they need. In some cases the prescription drug simply does not exist; it has been discontinued because of lack of raw materials, capital, and labor. In other cases, the drug is so rare and the consumers cannot afford it. The Federal Trade Commission has control over consumer protection laws. They work to make sure that the nation’s markets function “competitively, and are vigorous, efficient, and free of undue restrictions.” The Food and Drug Administration is taking precautions so that the most important drugs do not run out completely. They are rationing drugs at hospitals.
Hospitals are frustrated because they are failing to “treat basic things — [such as] cardiac arrest, pain management, seizures.” The FDA has to make tough choices regarding who gets the necessary drugs and who does not.
All over the United States, there are wounded people riding in the back of an ambulance that are not being given morphine to numb the pain. There is a shortage of morphine and doctors must make the impossible choice to let the patient sit in pain, and possibly die of shock, because they must ration morphine. New jobs have been created, because hospitals and pharmacies need people to track down hard-to-find drugs. Although there are some new jobs, prices are continuing to rise and many sick individuals are panicking because they cannot find the drugs they need.
The list of hard-to-find medicines is growing, and doctors and patients are concerned. The Food and Drug Administration are doing everything they can to alert the public, but there is not much the FDA can do to supply the necessary drugs to the public.
The United States Constitution has shaped everything about how Americans think and act, since its creation in 1776. The Constitution is the backbone of every process of government, making it the go to piece of literature for every controversial issue that faces our nation. Over the course of this Government class, we have discussed many common issues that can only be solved through close examination of the Constitution itself.
Article one of the United States Constitution focuses on the Legislative Branch and its roles and restrictions. We focused a lot on Section eight and nine: the Powers of Congress and the Limits on Congress. The United States Congress works completely from within the confines of what the Constitution say they can do. The Congress has immense power over the everyday life of American Citizens. They make all the major decisions making it impossible not to respect their work. Article one establishes everything we know about our modern government, and it was written over two hundred years ago.
Article two discuses the Executive branch of government. The Roles of the President are specifically outlines in this section. We learned about the formal and informal powers of the President and how he influences the daily life of the American public. The in-depth study of the President teaches us a lot about how the government works and our influence in it.
Article three outlines the specific roles of the judicial branch. The judicial branch is a very important part the United States government that is often over looked. In class we did a mock trail that helped us understand how cases pass through the Supreme Court, and our role in the process. We learned about the different Supreme Court justices. The third Article of the Constitution explicitly explains the crimes that will get the President impeached.
Lastly, we studied the Amendments. We were given many situations and were told to make a Supreme Court decision based off the Amendments of the Constitution. The twenty-seven Amendments of the United States Constitution are very important to the judicial branch. It is important to everyday citizens because these Amendments are the backbone to the laws that make up the daily life in America.
The United States Constitution was written in 1776, and has been the foundation of government ever since. It is important to understand the branches of government and how they influence the American public. In class we connected each section of the Constitution to daily life and studied how they work in the simplest since. The Constitution makes it possible to study controversial issues that face society, and how to solve them.
Since the dawn of time, men have been soldiers. However, in the modern world, these beliefs are turning into a thing of the past, and women are gaining equality in every aspect society. There are still those who believe that women should not be allowed into combat, but for the most part, those ideas are ancient. Early this year, the Pentagon has begun discussing the idea of the lifting the Combat Exclusion Policy that restricts women from combat duties. If this policy is lifted, the military must reassess many of its practices. In order to make this an effective change, the policy must first be withdrawn, then it must be accepted as a cultural norm. The courts pathway is a simple process compared to the process of changing the cultural norm, and the hearts and minds of the American people. The issue of whether or not women should be allowed in combat is a prime example of how to use the Courts and the Cultural pathways, to make a difference in society.
In 1994, the Pentagon ruled that women should not be allowed to be involved in armor, infantry, artillery, or any other combat role. The Combat Exclusion Policy is now a topic of discussion with emphasis on abolishing it. Almost twenty years later, the Pentagon is reassessing the topic, and looking pass it through the courts quickly. Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta has spent much of his time studying this topic, to make sure that it is done, correctly and efficiently. Once the decision is made, he must give a 30-day letter of intent to Congress, but nothing they can do can stop it from going into effect, unless they pass a law against it. Getting it through the Courts is a very important part, of the process. The more talk about the topic, the more people will stand behind what they believe in. The majority of those in power believe in gender equality in the military. General Dempsey wishes, “To implement these initiatives successfully and without sacrificing our war-fighting capability or the trust of the American people” (The New York Times). As with every controversial issue, there are those who are strongly against it. Organizations, such as the Family Research Consul argue that, “living conditions are primal in many situations with no privacy for personal hygiene or normal functions” (The New York Times). There are many people who support the idea of women in combat, and many who object it, but when it comes down to it, Defense Secretary Leon E. Panetta has made his decision and pushed it through to Congress.
In order to make this change, the military must be accepting and open-minded. They will have to change traditions and mindsets in order for out military to run effectively. Allowing women in combat is not just a change in policy, but a complete alteration in the minds of the American people. As of now, it is almost impossible for women to advance in her career in the military. She is restricted in so many aspects, and seen as inferior to her male counterparts. This change in policy will allow women to work to achieve the same rights and positions men have in the armed forces. As of 2013, there have only been two women four-star generals. The culture in the United States military makes it seem as if women cannot, and never will be put equal to men. In basic training, men and women are tested under completely different standards, and almost completely separated during exercises. The culture in America, is adapting slowly to accommodate the new modern and liberal way of thinking. The outside world is “pressuring the Pentagon to catch up with the reality on the battlefield” (The New York Times) There are already thousands of women who have been deployed in Afghanistan, with more then 800 wounded and 130 killed. These women are returning home, but they never truly receive the credit they deserve, because women are not recognized in combat roles. The lifting of the Combat Exclusion Policy, will open doors for women in the military, and change the cultural norm of women’s roles in society.
The Combat Exclusion Policy has been a part of United States military for almost 20 years, since the Pentagon passed it in 1994. The idea that only men should be involved in combat has been the cultural norm for thousands of years. Early in 2013, the Pentagon decided to eliminate the policy, giving women equal opportunity on the battlefield. The Combat Exclusion Policy is a huge step towards gender equality every aspect of American society, and once it is through the courts, it will be on its way to making a true and lasting impact.